Fossil Collective - Tell Where I Lie (2013)
"You can have a cultural revolution where you're trying to throw everything up, you can create a North Korean-type situation where the state's in control. Other than immense central authority to have people just obey, I think the collective action problem is just completely not solvable," Gates said.
Fossil Collective - Tell Where I Lie (2013)
Bioimmuration occurs when a skeletal organism overgrows or otherwise subsumes another organism, preserving the latter, or an impression of it, within the skeleton. Usually it is a sessile skeletal organism, such as a bryozoan or an oyster, which grows along a substrate, covering other sessile sclerobionts. Sometimes the bioimmured organism is soft-bodied and is then preserved in negative relief as a kind of external mold. There are also cases where an organism settles on top of a living skeletal organism that grows upwards, preserving the settler in its skeleton. Bioimmuration is known in the fossil record from the Ordovician to the Recent.
A transitional fossil is any fossilized remains of a life form that exhibits traits common to both an ancestral group and its derived descendant group. This is especially important where the descendant group is sharply differentiated by gross anatomy and mode of living from the ancestral group. Because of the incompleteness of the fossil record, there is usually no way to know exactly how close a transitional fossil is to the point of divergence. These fossils serve as a reminder that taxonomic divisions are human constructs that have been imposed in hindsight on a continuum of variation.
The term subfossil can be used to refer to remains, such as bones, nests, or fecal deposits, whose fossilization process is not complete, either because the length of time since the animal involved was living is too short (less than 10,000 years) or because the conditions in which the remains were buried were not optimal for fossilization. Subfossils are often found in caves or other shelters where they can be preserved for thousands of years. The main importance of subfossil vs. fossil remains is that the former contain organic material, which can be used for radiocarbon dating or extraction and sequencing of DNA, protein, or other biomolecules. Additionally, isotope ratios can provide much information about the ecological conditions under which extinct animals lived. Subfossils are useful for studying the evolutionary history of an environment and can be important to studies in paleoclimatology.
Fossils appear to have directly contributed to the mythology of many civilizations, including the ancient Greeks. Classical Greek historian Herodotos wrote of an area near Hyperborea where gryphons protected golden treasure. There was indeed gold mining in that approximate region, where beaked Protoceratops skulls were common as fossils.
Early naturalists well understood the similarities and differences of living species leading Linnaeus to develop a hierarchical classification system still in use today. Darwin and his contemporaries first linked the hierarchical structure of the tree of life with the then very sparse fossil record. Darwin eloquently described a process of descent with modification, or evolution, whereby organisms either adapt to natural and changing environmental pressures, or they perish.
Since Darwin's time, the fossil record has been extended to between 2.3 and 3.5 billion years. Most of these Precambrian fossils are microscopic bacteria or microfossils. However, macroscopic fossils are now known from the late Proterozoic. The Ediacara biota (also called Vendian biota) dating from 575 million years ago collectively constitutes a richly diverse assembly of early multicellular eukaryotes.
According to one hypothesis, a Corinthian vase from the 6th century B.C. C. is the oldest artistic record of a vertebrate fossil, perhaps a Miocene giraffe combined with elements from other species. However, a subsequent study using artificial intelligence and expert evaluations reject this idea, because mammals do not have the eye bones shown in the painted monster. Morphologically, the vase painting correspond to a carnivorous reptile of the Varanidae family that still lives in regions occupied by the ancient Greek.
Fossil trading is the practice of buying and selling fossils. This is many times done illegally with artifacts stolen from research sites, costing many important scientific specimens each year. The problem is quite pronounced in China, where many specimens have been stolen.
The absence of a robust empirical foundation for collective action accounts of climate politics has serious implications for international relations. Decades of international negotiations have sought to address free-riding because there was widespread belief that this was holding back climate policy. Treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement sought to create transparent and verifiable commitments, presumably in order to increase compliance. Our findings join critical voices arguing that this was the wrong solution to a misunderstood problem (e.g., Victor 2011). Yet our review raises deeper questions about institutional design for global climate regimes. Solutions such as climate clubs, while offering several benefits, may still not solve the climate problem if the logic of climate politics has been misdiagnosed. To the extent that distributive conflicts are the main constraint on effective policies, international agreements may be more successful if they instead focus on empowering key pro-climate interest groups and neutralizing veto players, such as fossil fuel interests.
Figure 2 charts trends in US public support for conditional and unconditional climate cooperation, drawing from time series data collected by the Yale Project on Climate Change Communication. This analysis extends what is reported in Tingley and Tomz (2013). Large majorities (over 60 percent) of the US public are unconditional climate cooperators, and this fraction has remained stable despite a changing global climate regime. We see no evidence that either the Copenhagen failure or the Paris agreement shifted unconditional support levels. Further emphasizing how decoupled many individuals are from the empirical predictions of collective action theory, Tingley and Tomz (2013) show how 5 percent of their sample are climate counterbalancers: individuals whose support for unconditional action increases, rather than decreases, in response to global inaction.
The 2021 Production Gap Report finds that despite increased climate ambitions and net-zero commitments, governments plan to produce more than double the amount of fossil fuels in 2030 than what would be consistent with limiting global warming to 1.5C. Over the next two decades, governments are collectively projecting an increase in global oil and gas production, and only a modest decrease in coal production. Taken together, plans and projections see global, total fossil fuel production rising to at least 2040. The report provides country profiles for 15 major producer countries, where most governments continue to provide significant policy support for fossil fuel production. They include Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Norway, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States. Recent scientific evidence clearly confirms that unless global coal, oil, and gas production start declining immediately and steeply, warming will exceed 1.5C and result in catastrophic consequences
Oh boy, where would we be without Colin's mind reducing, unintelligent copy/pasting?It's always good for a laugh to see how a finite, ignorant little speck like Colin will try to say what an infinite, all knowing being would think or say.
Evolution stands exposed as a myth; a fanciful theory where so-called "fact" is built upon assumption; where theory replaces data; where guesswork replaces logic; where anti-supernaturalistic bias reigns supreme. Evolution is built on the house of cards called "The Geologic Succession Of Strata," which ASSUMES that the "oldest rocks" containing the "simplest forms of fossil life" are ALWAYS beneath "younger" rocks, which supposedly proves that life "evolved" from "simple" to complex; that men came from amoeba. Here, you will discover the astonishing truth about evolution's big lie!-Garner Ted Armstrong
A few reaons intelligent design is BS. First and most obviously is the fossil record. The fossil record is much, much more than just dinosaurs. Indeed, dinosaurs only get the press because of their size, but they make up less than 1% of the entire fossil record. Life had been evolving on Earth for over 3 thousand million years before dinosaurs evolved and has gone on evolving for 65 million years after the Chicxulub meteor likely wiped them out.
The sustained protest at Standing Rock in Dakota has seen a victory, at least for now, with the US engineer corps saying it will allow a massive oil pipeline to be routed beneath the Missouri River. But other fights can also show the power to take on those vested interests of the oil and gas companies. The strikes in France over the new work law in 2016 took place in oil refineries and involved blockades of fuel depots. The action led to a petrol shortage and hit power output. The strikes were about the new work law but they showed where power lies to take on the giant fossil fuel multinationals.
Frank Haldemann (2008) proposes that we could achieve (transitional) justice through collective recognition which could be actualized through four activities: truth-telling, apologies, reparations and positive symbolism. I will explore these four activities in turn, examining how they might can act as heuristic devices to help resolve the tension between just shorter-term local concerns and the just longer-term global concerns.
Apologies seem to be more relevant for past wrong doings, than for deliberate future actions for the common good which create local impacts. However Haldemann draws attention to victim-centred acknowledgement, whereby those who are negatively affected receive a collective or institutional apology which is focused on the human dignity and legitimate feelings of those affected. So instead of ignoring local impacts on landscape aesthetics and place identity, we should seek to acknowledge explicitly and proactively the local feelings; the definition of losing out can only be drafted by the person who feel they are losing out. One way to address this is to ensure that the decision to site the project is accepted as legitimate by local inhabitants, for example through a democratic process which determines not only the ideas behind renewable energy and the amount to accept locally, but also the ways in which the majority will seek to recognize and alleviate local feelings.